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Causes of global warming



Contents

  • 1 Global warming
  • 2 The greenhouse phenomenon
  • 3 Greenhouse gases
  • 4 causes of global warming
  • 5 The effect of global warming
  • 6 How to reduce the impact of global warming
  • 7 Video causes of global warming
  • 8 References

Global Warming

Global warming is the gradual rise in the Earth's atmosphere , as a result of changes in heat energy conversions. The source of heat on Earth originally is the sun's rays that penetrate the atmosphere and raise the Earth’s temperature, but due to human activities, especially The industrial revolution, its temperature has increased significantly, which has negatively affected its climate and atmosphere components. The surface temperature of the earth has risen in the last hundred years by approximately 0.6 ° C, [1] and the Swedish scientist Svanat Aarnius is the first to call the global warming Thermal on this phenomenon in 1896 AD. [2]





The greenhouse phenomenon

Greenhouse Effect occurs due to the presence of specific gases in the atmosphere in high levels, called greenhouse gases, and these gases play a big role in preserving the thermal energy of the Earth, as it absorbs part of the radiation The infrared emitted from its surface, and it is kept in the atmosphere, which leads to heating the surface of the earth, and keeping its temperature constant in its normal range, i.e. up to 15 ° C, to the level that makes life possible on it. Without these gases, its temperature would have reached 18 ° C below zero. [3]


Greenhouse gases

The high levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere led to the retention of a greater amount of heat energy in the atmosphere, and the surface temperature of the earth began to rise in a way that affects all its operations and systems, and greenhouse gases include the following gases: [4]
  • Water vapor : its concentration in the atmosphere depends on the amount of temperature and weather conditions, and its percentage may range from 0-4%.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ): its importance lies in absorbing infrared rays, and its presence in the atmosphere may reach approximately 0.038%.
  • Nitrogen oxides: These include nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and nitrogen monoxide (NO).
  • Methane (CH 4 ): Methane is produced from the decomposition of organic waste and digestion in animals.
  • Ozone (O 3 ): this gas absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC): used in refrigeration systems,in several industries, such as paints and pesticides.
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ): produced from various combustion processes.

Causes of global warming

The causes leading to global warming can be summarized as follows: [5] [6]
  • Changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun: as a result of the change in the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth, this factor is very important in climate changes.
  • Volcanic eruptions: volcanic eruptions cause the emission of large quantities of dust and gases, and from these gases emitted sulfur dioxide, and its negative effect is that it remains in the atmosphere for large periods, so the sun's radiation is blocked, while the minutes of dust emitted affect the balance of the atmosphere, and increase in the atmosphere Earth's temperature.
  • Gases from organic pollutants: These pollutants include livestock waste, especially cows, sheep, and chicken.
  • Air pollution: where air pollution contributes to the surge of large quantities of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which increases its proportion in the atmosphere.
  • Ozone depletion: The ozone layer is defined as a layer present in the atmosphere that contains ozone gas, and protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays coming from the sun. The depletion of this layer is an effective cause of global warming; gases emitted from industries, including CFCs, layer Ozone causes holes in it, so harmful gases enter the earth through these holes, which leads to their entrapment and global warming.
  • Logging: Logging reduces the oxygen in the atmosphere and increases the percentage of carbon dioxide that plants benefit from in photosynthesis .
  • Industrial progress: Burning fuel produces very large quantities of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, which absorbs infrared radiation and traps it in the ground, in addition to many harmful gases emitted to the air, where it mixes with other gases in the atmosphere. Forming toxic compounds that may damage the human respiratory system .
  • The use of chemical fertilizers : Chemical fertilizers are considered one of the most influencing factors in global warming, because they contain several compounds that contribute to the phenomenon of greenhouse gases, such as: nitrogen oxides, which cause many holes in the ozone layer, and thus the harmful ultraviolet radiation enters the earth through these holes. The temperature rises.

The effect of global warming

Impact of global warming on the planet seriously affected, as follows: [7] [8] [9]
  • Extreme heat waves: Global warming increases the incidence of severe heat waves, which negatively affect human health, and causes a great loss in the global economy. In 2003, European countries were invaded by a severe heat wave, which killed 27 thousand people, and caused material losses estimated at 14.7 One billion euros.
  • The occurrence of floods: global warming leads to melting large parts of the ice, which raises the sea level, and causes floods, and this poses a threat to low islands and coastal cities, and it is worth noting that melting ice has caused the rise in the sea level and the ocean between 10-20 cm. In the last century.
  • Drought incidence: Drought increases the rate of forest fires .
  • Threatening the life of living organisms: Global warming creates new conditions for the organism in the place it lives, forcing it to adapt to it, such as: temperature changes, and as a result of these changes it has been found that 25% of mammals and 12% of birds are threatened with extinction.
  • Saline ocean circulation : Saline circulation is defined as the movement of water in the ocean according to its density affected by temperature and the amount of salinity, and the greenhouse effect causes the ice to melt, increasing the rate of fresh water, which stops or slows down the saline circulation.

How to reduce the impact of global warming

The effect of global warming can be reduced by many means and procedures, the most important of which are: [10]
  • The use of renewable energy sources for the purposes of producing electricity and heating homes, in addition to using insulation materials in buildings to reduce energy loss.
  • The use of energy-saving lamps, as regular lamps can be replaced, and the fluorescent lamp can be used because it provides 66% of the energy consumed in ordinary lamps.
  • Reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers, by finding effective solutions to conserve the soil , by feeding it with the materials it needs without the need for this type of fertilizer.
  • Encourage the cultivation of trees that use carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.