Defining educational administration and the concept of educational planning


  • 1 Definition of educational administration
  • 2 concept of educational planning
  • 3 The emergence of educational administration and educational planning
    • 3.1 The emergence of educational administration
    • 3.2 The emergence of educational planning
  • 4 stages of educational planning
  • 5 types of educational administration
  • 6 References

The definition of educational administration

Educational administration is a set of processes that include planning , controlling, directing, implementing, and evaluating work related to private affairs in educational institutions that form schools through the use of the best available methods and methods, [1] and educational management is also defined as comprehensive and interlinked processes that represent the system The educational system applied in society , which appears in the education system in the country, and the educational curricula and policies that it provides for the various educational stages. [2]

The concept of educational planning

Educational planning is an organized process of a scientific and educational nature that seeks to bring about change in human life ; by activating the economic and social fields by seeking to direct educational institutions to achieve future goals that contribute to providing the needs of society, [3] educational planning is defined as a set of activities Which is concerned with setting specific goals for educational development , and these activities take place during the implementation of planning for comprehensive development through relying on human, economic and financial resources. [4]

The emergence of educational administration and educational planning

The origins of educational administration and educational planning depended on many important historical stages. The following provides information on the origin of each of them:

The emergence of educational administration

The idea emerged of educational administration as a field cognitive, and some kind of occupations in the twentieth century, specifically in the second than the contract, and influenced by the educational administration of scientific management movement of the thinker Taylor , which led to the educational administration transition from the traditional administrative status to the scientific management seeks to solve problems for The way to rely on thinking, analysis and objectivity. [5]

Educational administration emerged as an independent science in the United States of America in 1946 AD. Studies and research on this type of administration increased over time, and then educational administration spread in Europe and specifically in Britain , and later reached the Soviet Union, and spread in all parts of the world. [5]

The origins of educational planning

The concept of educational planning was known to ancient civilizations. In the Greek Renaissance, nearly 25 centuries ago, the Spartans planned education by reaching economic, social, and military goals that were clearly defined, but in Islamic civilization, Muslims were interested in planning an Islamic education that focused on the individuals ’tolerance of the mobility of individuals For all of their work. [6]

The modern concept of educational planning appeared after the First World War , as it depended on the role of the Soviet Union in the application of successful planning, known as the first five-year plan, which was implemented in 1923 AD, and was able to prove its success, which contributed to reducing the number of illiterate people in society , and helped to emerge a remarkable development in The educational field, and after the Second World War, the development of educational planning increased as a result of many factors, including technological and scientific development, and a set of demographic, economic, and political changes that led to the adoption of new educational roles. [6]

Stages of educational planning

The application of educational planning in educational institutions depends on its passage in several stages, including: [7]
  • The study of educational reality schematically, and this stage is an evaluation of the educational system applied in the past, and all the factors that affect it negatively or positively, and this stage constitutes the following:
    • The evaluation of the previous educational situation, and includes the previous educational plan, whatever its nature, whether it is long or short-term; the aim is to show areas of weakness and strength at this stage.
    • Analyzing the current educational situation, which is diagnosing the educational situation at the present time, and showing its ability to achieve educational goals , and determining the nature of education inputs and outputs, by conducting a study that is concerned with following up on inputs that include curricula, teachers, students, teaching methods, and other other inputs .
    • The study of the environment of the educational system, which is the concern with the planning environment, which is characterized by its role in the success or failure of the educational plan, and includes a group of economic, cultural, and political factors.
  • Setting goals: are the educational goals and aspirations associated with the economic, social, and political aspirations of society.
  • Preparing strategies for achieving the goals , which is the interest of the responsible in educational planning in setting up related questions in the population affected by activities, and the goals for planning.
  • Preparing alternative programs that contribute to achieving the goals, which are the options that must be applied to study and evaluation, because they are considered the means determined by the educational plan to achieve the goals.
  • Preparing the plan , which is a translation of the traditional image of education that leads to converting it to a digital image. This stage depends on implementing the following procedures:
    • Evaluating the conditions of the educational system and listing the problems that it suffers from.
    • Formulating the required needs in light of the available capabilities.
    • Establishing a suitable and comprehensive program for developing the educational system.
    • Coordination between educational projects and setting appropriate specifications for their executive programs.
    • Determine the costs, time required, and appropriate funding sources .
  • Implementing the planning budget is relying on the existence of a financing program by identifying the sources of funding and the various and beneficial resources for educational planning.
  • Implementation and follow-up of the plan; it is the direct implementation of the educational plan after approval by the supervising authority on education , and through reliance on the funding program, and planning budgets prepared in the previous stages.

Types of educational administration

Laws contribute to the identification of the types of educational administration that helps the human elements to make decisions appropriate, and comes with information on educational management types: [8]
  • The traditional educational administration: it is concerned with the implementation of laws related to education, while exceeding some aspects of real development.
  • The Close Educational Administration for Modernity: It is one of the most dangerous types of administration whose elements depend on taking the external appearance of modernity, but keeping a consistent pattern in implementing the laws related to education.
  • Modern educational management: is the concern for the targeted objects of education, with the aim of achieving an integrated human development based on human behavior and laws.