Definition of criticism



Contents

  • 1 Definition of criticism
  • 2 The difference between constructive criticism and destructive criticism
  • 3 stages of the critical process
  • 4 terms of the critic
  • 5 Critical Curricula
    • 5.1 The historical system
    • 5.2 The Modernist System
  • 6 References

Definition of criticism

Criticism is defined in a language as the distinction of dirhams and the extraction of false ones, and it comes in the sense of examining something and revealing its faults. As for the terminology, criticism is an examination of the literary work in an integrated manner upon completion of its writing. The literary text is properly evaluated, which reveals the quality and poor quality of it, and shows its degree and value, and then judging it by certain criteria and classifying it with similar status. [1]
Criticism differs in its standards and provisions according to the art in which criticism is practiced. Criticism directed at writers and critics differs from criticism of the jurists, just as the criticism of fundamentalists differs from the criticism of the speakers. Each of them has its own approach and the rule between them sentencing and evaluation, and criticism may be in the field of literature, politics, philosophy , and in various other areas, it is worth mentioning that there is a vocabulary approach to criticism, such as assessment, responses, debates and debates and controversy, discussion, but you The term distinguishes it from the other in terms of methods, judgments, and goals. [1]

The difference between constructive criticism and destructive criticism

Scholars divided the criticism into constructive criticism, in which the critic seeks to correct the error and attempts to fix it based on scientific foundations, away from intolerance and the issuance of prejudices. Criticism of Haddam, in which criticism is for obtaining from others, defaming them, and striving for them, by showing their mistakes without an argument or proof. [2]

It appears from this that the critic critic in constructive offers specialized criticism based on scientific methods in the field of his specialization, while the critic criticism destructive criticizes unfairly, and may be based on offending people because of his fanaticism of an idea, and may be in the field of his study. Also, constructive criticism is the primary aim of correcting the situation; therefore, the critic seeks to provide advice to people, or to suggest to them without offense, while the goal of the critic in destructive criticism is victory, regardless of whether he is right or not; where the critic here revenge Others are exposed. [2]

On the other hand, the critic criticizes constructive criticism that his opinion may be taken or may be rejected, but the critic criticism destructive believes that his opinion is the absolute and irreversible truth, while the third difference is clear in the critic's welcome of all opinions presented in constructive criticism, as it does not concern him The opinion holder is as much as the opinion itself cares, but the critic in the destructive criticism does not care to provide solutions and discuss them, as much as criticism concerns him according to the position of the people, and the last difference is evident that the critic in constructive criticism separates each idea from another, and accepts other positive ideas that are issued by the person Same who criticized E, while in destructive criticism, the critic rejects all ideas that come from the person who criticized him, even if they were important. [2]

Stages of the critical process

Criticism is subject to a set of necessary procedures and steps, and it passes through three stages. It is: [3]
  • The stage of interpretation : The content of the text and the general meaning that the writer wanted to communicate to the readers are clarified at this stage.
  • The analysis stage : This is where the writer's method of expressing his thoughts and emotions is explained.
  • The evaluation stage: It is the last stage in the critical process, and it means judging the literary work either by its success, or by its failure.

Critic terms

There are some conditions that must be met in the critic. Including: [2]
  • Critical talent: through which a critic can properly appreciate things, so good work distinguishes from bad work.
  • Scientific eligibility and competence: That the critic specializes in criticizing works in his field of specialization, and possesses extensive culture in various fields, which qualifies him to give his opinion with confidence.
  • Justice and fairness: by issuing its rulings in all transparency and honesty, away from passion and intolerance, by explaining its rulings and interpreting its opinion based on scientific grounds that are not subject to his emotion or personal inclinations; he does not issue his ruling in order to favor anyone, or in order to reduce the value of anyone.
  • Adherence to literature: criticism must be far from offending others by the words outside the literature. Criticism is directed at the idea without harming those who disagree with the opinion, even if they are wrong.

Critical approaches

The critical approach has two concepts: one of them is general, related to the nature of critical thought that laid its foundations Descartes, and its principle was based on the non-acceptance of Muslim women before their presentation to the mind; The nature, elements, laws, and relationship of literature to society, its customs, and traditions. The critical curricula are divided into two systems: the historical system and the modernist system. [4]

Historical system

  • The historical curriculum: It is considered one of the first critical approaches in the modern era, because it is closely related to the development of human thought, and its transmission from the middle ages to the modern era. This led to the emergence of historical awareness, which was the reason for the emergence of romantic schools, and their transfer from Europe to other cultures. Romanticism represented the historical awareness of the human being, and linked it to his social reality, after prevailing ideas that the present is only deterioration and collapse. [5]
After that , Marxist philosophy , which had a major role in the historical development of literature, emerged through the study of the literary process within two axes: the temporal axis and the spatial axis related to it, and looking at it as one integrated document. Then, other methods emerged that were more flexible than the Marxist approach, as it gave more freedom to the individual, the creator, and the critic, represented in the method of critical realism, whereby the adoption of societal issues without the obligation of anyone. [5]

Tin and Lanson are among the most prominent people who contributed to shaping the historical method in literary criticism. Tin found that literature is interpreted through several elements: gender or race, which distinguishes a group of people with the same origins, And the environment , which is the geographical environment in which the creator and time arise, which leave a mark on literature. While we note the great impact that Lanson left in Arab criticism, he worked on laying down basic lines and elaborating them in the historical method in literary criticism. [5]
  • The Social Approach: The social approach emerged from the historical approach and took its fundamentals from it. It is worth noting that the historical awareness quickly turned into a social awareness, related to literature , and represents life at the collective level, and interacts with the systems and transformations of society . Among the most prominent doctrines that adopted critical social doctrine are Marxism and Western realism, where they worked side by side in promoting social criticism. [6]
  • The anthropological psychological approach: The psychological approach began to apply the mechanism of its work in conjunction with the emergence of Freud's theory of psychological analysis, where he studied the phenomena of creativity in literature in the light of human behavior by returning it to the subconscious area, a group of stored and invisible desires of the human personality, which a person may dream of during his sleep , considering that the interpretation of dreams is the basis , which reflects the creative personality of poetry, music , art, Freud resorted to the literary text link subconscious area with the owner, and considered the literary figures real figures reflect the real wishes of the repressed, is the psychological structure of Safe in the subconscious area of the creator, and text appear on the surface of the literary. [7]

Modernist system

  • The structural approach: It is the approach that had an impact in the first half of the twentieth century, and one of its most famous founders is the linguist "de Saussure", which distinguishes between speech that is considered an individual act, and the language that is a mental model and a reference for speech. The most important source of the structural approach is the movement of Russian formalists. It called for attention to the interior design of the literary text , in addition to the emergence of the new school of criticism, which focused on studying the literary text regardless of other factors. [8]
  • Stylistic approach: "Charles Bali", who is considered the first founder of stylistics, relied on the linguistic appearance of the style, with its focus on the emotional side, and the style can be defined as linguistic choices among several alternatives; which indicates the nature and character of the writer, a method that reveals the aesthetic of the text, by studying linguistic phenomena Rhetoric in it. [9]
  • The semiotic approach: which is the linguistic mark, Saussure set the basic properties of the linguistic mark, or symbols, and limited this science to the study of signs in their social connotations, while Pearce analyzed the types of signs and distinguished them by their multiple levels, where he identified the differences between signs such as: arrow , And the movement of the finger, distinguish the icon from the symbol that connects the meaning of the word and its external guide. [10]