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Ways to quit smoking



Contents

  • 1 quit smoking
  • 2 ways to quit smoking
  • 3 medications to help quit smoking
    • 3.1 Nicotine replacement therapy
      • 3.1.1 Nicotine gum
      • 3.1.2 nicotine suction tablets
      • 3.1.3 Nicotine Patches
      • 3.1.4 other forms
    • 3.2 Varenicline
    • 3.3 bupropion
    • 3.4 Other medicines
  • 4 tips to help you quit smoking
  • 5 References

Quit Smoking

Smoking is associated with many different diseases and health problems. It contains more than 60 cancer-causing chemicals, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 80% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( In English: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is attributed to smoking, while it is linked to the death of 90% of lung cancer cases, in addition to being linked to the incidence of oral, throat, pancreas, stomach, cardiovascular diseases, and others. [1] [2]

Despite the many health risks associated with smoking, it is not a cause for despair and surrender to the harms of smoking. Quitting smoking reflects positively on the health of the individual and reduces the risk of injury to the above-mentioned health problems almost immediately. For example, after about 20 minutes of quitting smoking, it reduces the whole height The temporary blood pressure and pulse that usually follow smoking, and the proportion of carbon dioxide in the body returns to normal after about 8 hours after quitting smoking, and the chances of heart attack decrease after 24 hours, while the risk of death from diseases The heart caused by smoking increased by about 50% within 1-5 years of quitting, and after ten years the likelihood of dying from lung cancer decreases in the individual who quit smoking so that it becomes similar to it in people who did not smoke throughout their lives. [3]

Ways to quit smoking

Some people may have difficulty quitting smoking, given that cigarettes contain addictive nicotine; stopping them is accompanied by the appearance of disturbing symptoms on the individual known as withdrawal symptoms to stop smoking, including nervousness, insomnia, headache, increased appetite, craving for smoking, and the inability to smoke Focus, [2] [4]It should be noted that good preparation is one of the most important steps that help to quit smoking successfully, by raising awareness of smoking behavior. Smoking over time becomes an automatic habit that is difficult to overcome, and to be able to change all habits associated with smoking, it must be more aware In order to accomplish this, he must monitor the times during which he smokes during the day, the environmental conditions and moods that he went through during these times, and define the smoking incentives that can be targeted during the next stage of treatment, and the smoker should specify a specific date to quit smoking and adhere to it, and It is worth noting that there are two different methods that smokers resort to in order to quit smoking, and they are: [5]
  • Quitting smoking without assistance: This is when the individual stops smoking without resorting to any help from specialists in smoking cessation programs, or using any medications or products that help to quit smoking, whether by quitting smoking at once or gradually.
  • Quitting smoking with medical help: This is for the individual to turn to a specialist in smoking cessation programs, and / or to use drugs or products that help quit smoking.

Medicines to help quit smoking

Doctors may resort to prescribing certain medications for people who want to quit smoking, with the aim of helping the individual to alleviate withdrawal symptoms caused by stopping and exceeding smoking, including: [6] [7]
  • Nicotine substitutes: Provide the body with nicotine, and the individual uses it in doses that decrease gradually until it is discontinued, and it is available in several pharmaceutical forms such as: gum, sucking tablets, etc., and it should be noted that most of the alternatives to nicotine can be obtained without a prescription.
  • Varenicline: (English: Varenicline) is more drugs to stop smoking effectiveness according to the studies.
  • Bupropion, which is an anti-depressant medication that also helps to stop smoking.

Nicotine replacement therapy

Nicotine substitutes provide the body with nicotine without the other harmful chemicals in cigarettes, and these alternatives are available in the form of gums, sucking tablets, plasters, etc., and it should be noted that the nicotine alternatives are generally safe for all smokers who want to quit smoking, except for pregnant women and adolescents, of course , prevents the use of a non - smoker, [8] but before you start using this type of treatments should be taken it into consideration the adoption of the appropriate dose of nicotine replacement, which is usually available at different doses; where appropriate dose selection is based on the number of cigarettes that are not To Kha smoked during the day, the more the number of cigarettes, the higher the dose needed by the smoker to start treatment, in addition to work on reducing the dose used nicotine replacement gradually even stop using it, [9]As we mentioned earlier, alternatives to nicotine include many products, and the following are details of the most prominent of these drugs and how to use each of them: [10]

Nicotine gum

Nicotine gum is available in two different doses: 2 mg and 4 mg. The frankincense action is the absorption of the cells lining the mouth of the nicotine present in it when chewing according to the instructions. This is placed between the cheek and gums until the feeling of sting disappears, and this process is repeated several times until the biting taste completely disappears, which usually takes about 30 minutes from the start of chewing, and it should be noted that no more than a piece of nicotine gum should be taken together at the same time , And do not chew quickly, and do not exceed the period Mastication recommended above, as well as not eating any drinks or foods before 15 minutes taken during chewing, especially acidic ones, and advised the person who wants to quit smoking by using chewing gum for 12 consecutive weeks as follows: [8] [11]
  • From the first week to the sixth week: Chew a piece of frankincense every 1-2 hours.
  • From the seventh to the ninth week: Chew a piece of frankincense every 2-4 hours.
  • From 10 th to 12 th week: Chew a piece of frankincense every 4-8 hours.

As for how to choose the appropriate dose for a smoker, it depends on the daily smoking rate, and the following is an indication of that: [12]
  • 2 mg dose: It is recommended for smokers who consume less than 20 cigarettes during the day, or people who light the first cigarette after more than 30 minutes have passed from awakening.
  • 4 mg dose: It is recommended for smokers who consume 20 or more cigarettes per day, or people who light the first cigarette during the first 30 minutes of waking up.

Nicotine sucking tablets

Nicotine lozenge is similar in principle to the action of nicotine gum, but it does not need a lot of chewing and does not stick to the teeth like frankincense, and these tablets are available in two doses, the first 2 mg and the second 4 mg, and the selection of the appropriate dose depends on the rate of daily smoking just like gum Nicotine, and in this context it is indicated that nicotine sucking tablets should not be chewed, swallowed, but rather should be placed between the cheek and gums and let them melt alone and move them from time to time from side to side, usually it takes about 20-30 minutes until they completely dissolve, and it should be noted You should not take more than one tablet at all Once, it is usually recommended to use it for 12 consecutive weeks, and gradually reduce the amount consumed, as when using nicotine gum. [10] [13]

Nicotine patches

Nicotine patch) in its secretion of a small amount of nicotine fixed throughout the day, and these plasters are available in several doses, where the choice of the appropriate dose depends on body weight and the number of cigarettes consumed during the day, but it is often recommended that the smoker start using the patches containing higher doses of nicotine Which usually ranges from 15-22 mg during the first month of starting treatment, then using plasters containing lower doses, which range from 5-14 mg for a month as well, and it should be noted that these plasters also differ in the length of use, as there is a type Apply for 24 hours straight, preferably Its use for people who suffer from withdrawal symptoms of nicotine since waking up in the morning so that they get doses of nicotine during sleep, and they do not feel withdrawal symptoms when waking up, while there is a type that is applied for 16 continuous hours, but it does not usually supply the body with nicotine during sleep, and with regard to the method of use ,Adhere to a clean, hair-free patch of skin covering parts trapped between the neck and waist, then lightly squeeze it with the palm of the hand for 10 seconds, and replace it every day at the same time, according to the FDA, the period of treatment with nicotine patches ranges from 3-5 months, [8] [14] It should be noted that the use of nicotine patch may cause some side effects, and here are the most common of these symptoms and how to reduce them: [10]
  • Skin irritation and redness, and this symptom can be reduced by choosing a different patch of skin each time the patch is applied.
  • Nausea, which can be overcome with labels containing lower doses of nicotine.
  • Sleep disturbances . If this occurs, the patch that covers 16 hours of the day can be used instead of the one that covers 24 hours.

Other forms

There are other forms of nicotine substitutes, which can be illustrated as follows: [9] [15]
  • Device inhaled nicotine ( in English: Nicotine inhaler), is the principle of this work device to provide low - dose nicotine when taken according to the instructions provided, and should be alert to the need to put the device in the mouth and the imprisonment of nicotine emitted from it for a few seconds, it should be noted that nasal sprays nicotinic alternatives That you need a prescription to spend.
  • Nasal sprays nicotinic ( in English: Nicotine nasal spray), which is used through the nose, and is the principle of his work in the delivery of a small dose of nicotine to the body through the cells lining the nose, characterized this method as fast - acting compared Ballban, lozenges, and the device inhalation, in On the other hand, it may cause some side effects, such as irritation of the nose and sinuses, sneezing , and coughing. It should be noted that the nicotine nasal spray is an alternative that requires a prescription to dispense.

Varenicline

Varenicline is one of the drugs that contribute to smoking cessation. The principle of its action is to produce a similar effect for nicotine, by linking it with the nerve acetylcysteine ​​receptors that nicotine is linked to. [16] It should be noted that it is not recommended to give varenicline to children who have less They are over 16 years old, as it has not been proven effective for this age group, [17]This medicine is available in the form of oral tablets taken at first once a day and then twice a day; one in the morning and one in the evening, with a glass of water and after eating, and at almost constant time every day. It should also be noted that varenicline is an effective treatment To quit smoking, but it may take a few weeks for the individual to feel effective, so patience and treatment should be completed even if the individual feels a desire to smoke and smoke a cigarette after the date set for quitting anesthesia, and the treatment period lasts for 12 weeks if the individual finds the treatment successful in helping him to quit Smoking, it is recommended to use it For an additional 12 weeks so that the total duration of treatment becomes 24 weeks, and in this context it is indicated that there are different ways to quit smoking using varenicline, which is to start using the drug and set an appointment to quit smoking after a week or 8-35 days from the first day to start taking the drug However, if the individual finds it difficult to determine[18]

Bupropion drug

Bupropion is included in anti-depressants, and is used to help stop smoking as well. [19] It should be noted that this drug needs a week of time in order to reach fixed concentrations in the blood, and therefore the doctor usually recommends that you start using it a week before quitting smoking; So that the person continues to smoke and stop smoking during the second week of treatment with bupropion, and often needs to continue taking it for 7-12 weeks, and the effect of bupropion in treating cravings for smoking and other withdrawal symptoms of nicotine is likely to increase Some of the levels of chemical substances in the brain, and it should be noted that the use of this medicine requires the supervision and follow - up doctor [20]

Other medications

There are other drugs that studies indicate of their potential effectiveness in helping to quit smoking, but they have not yet been approved by the FDA for use in this field, and in this context it should be noted that these drugs are not prescribed to a medical prescription, and are not given to pregnant women, adolescents, or people Those who consume less than 10 cigarettes per day: [8]
  • Medicine Nortriptyline: (English: Nortriptyline), is Alnorcrabbtelin drugs anti-depressant , also contributes to reduce the withdrawal symptoms of smoking cessation, but should be alert to prevent the use of Nortriptyline without medical follow - up with a physician prescription, and should be noted that the doctor reduces the dose Gradually before using it is stopped, as it may cause side effects if it is suddenly stopped. [21]
  • Medication clonidine: (English Clonidine), one of the drugs used in the treatment of disease , hypertension, but it may be prescribed by a doctor to help you quit smoking, usually doctor dose decreases gradually before you stop using it; in order to avoid any side effects caused by the sudden suspension of the drug Such as: rapid rise in blood pressure. [22]

Tips to quit smoking

The smoking cessation phase includes the following: [5] [4]
  • Control of smoking incentives: by:
    • Remove everything related to smoking, such as lighters, cans and ashtray, before the due date to quit smoking.
    • Changing the daily routine to break the link between different daily activities and smoking. For example, it is possible to take another way to go to work other than the usual way, and it can also change the place of the usual to spend time off work.
    • Avoid spending free time and rest with friends who smoke, especially during the first period of starting a smoking cessation program.
  • Dealing with the urgent need for smoking: by following the following techniques:
    • Doing different physical activities.
    • Gained weight loss caused by quitting smoking.
    • Control stress and negative emotions that increase the desire to smoke.
    • Practice different relaxation techniques.
    • Being busy with thinking about smoking and trying to find new ways to fill in free time. For example, it is possible to plan to meet many friends during the week.
    • Busy hands and mouth when you feel a desire to smoke, such as holding a pen or eating some snacks.
    • Hiring people who want help to get past this stage.
  • Additional tips to deal with smoking withdrawal symptoms: by following these tips:
    • Get enough rest.
    • Moderate exercise, relaxation exercises and deep breathing to relieve insomnia, feelings of depression, irritation and constipation.
    • Drink more water.
    • Eat healthy foods, especially foods rich in fiber.
    • Avoid too much caffeinated beverage.
    • Divide food into small meals throughout the day instead of just three main meals to reduce the feeling of increased hunger and appetite.