How to draw


  • 1 drawing
  • 2 Beginning of the art of painting
  • 3 Elements of the artboard
    • 3.1 Figure
    • 3.2 Composition
    • 3.3 degree of illumination
    • 3.4 Shadow
    • 3.5 Optical focus
    • 3.6 Ratio measurement
    • 3.7 Reflection of objects
  • 4 How to draw
    • 4.1 Drawing topics
    • 4.2 Creating Objects
  • 5 drawing tools
  • 6 References


Drawing is a way to show three-dimensional images on a two-dimensional sheet, using basic composition elements such as composition, proportion , and volumetric display. Drawing is the primary medium for many arts such as sculpting, architecture , and making art, and may be the basis for filmmaking. It is not sufficient for learning to draw to learn the basics and techniques of drawing. Learning to draw is based on a person's ability to notice details, analyze them, his ability to create a general picture of his painting, understand the ratio and achieve it in the elements of his drawing, and make a consistent and beautiful training. [1]

The beginning of the art of drawing

In the Stone Age, man began to express his view of the living beings and the nature around him, to observe the events in his life, and to express his fear of things through painting. The caveman depicted scenes of his life depicting the scenes of his life, in abstract style and in very simple shapes, devoid of triangular formation. His method of painting was plant dyes, animal oils, minerals, and soil, as well as he was making reliefs using clay. One of the most famous primitive drawings is that of the wounded bison bull on the walls of a cave in Spain . In the Neolithic period, man became living in human groups, and his interest in social and agricultural life increased, which was reflected in his drawings. [2]

Elements of the artboard

The drawing contains a set of elements that, if drawn in harmony with one another, give a 3D painting that is more realistic. So the artist must know these elements, and understand the effect of each element on the quality of the art.

the shape

When looking at the scene or object to draw, we see it as one and complete shape. But every object or object is made up of a shape or a group of different shapes . In order for the scene to be drawn, it should be simplified into a group of simple shapes consisting of it, such as square, circle, rectangle and triangle, then draw the shapes that constitute it in an overlapping manner, and then you can add different values ​​of the intensity of the lines that make up the plate to add realism and depth to it. [3] [4]


We are not satisfied with drawing the main lines of the element, as they give little information about the drawn element. So we resort to creating a triple level for it in different ways, one of which is the contour lines or the so-called topographic lines of the body that appear on the outside of the element. [4]

Degree of illumination

To make the drawing more realistic, longitudinal and transverse scratching lines are drawn on the body, determining the degree of illumination on the body. The lines are dense in the dark area and light in the lit area, so that there is a gradient between the two regions. [4]

the shadow

When light falls on the body, it forms a dark area in the opposite direction, forming a shadow for the body. And draw a shadow helps to create a sense of stability on the body surface, rather than hanging that appears in the void. [4]

Optical focus

The light reflected from the body after it falls on it forms a region with higher illumination than others. And when drawn, that area is the lightest in the painting. [4]

Ratio measurement

In order for the painting to appear consistent, the correct proportions of the shapes must be drawn, and this does not mean their accurate measurement but rather the creation of a ratio and proportion between the shapes in the plate. To achieve this, a set of methods is used, including: [3]
  • Pencil: you can estimate the proportions of things by placing the pencil facing the element, and using the thumb to determine the distance on the pen, then comparing the measured dimension with another dimension to find out the ratio between them.
  • Measurement calipers: by measuring an element that was drawn using the measuring calipers.
  • Sewing scale: The sewing scale is directed to the item to be drawn, taken to scale, and then moved onto the drawing sheet.

Reflection of objects

Reflection objects drawing on the board adds beauty and realism. Reflection of objects is perpendicular to the surface. [3]

How to draw

When you start drawing, there are a set of decisions that must be planned and studied first, before you start using the tools and drawing.

Drawing topics

There are many options for drawing, and until a person can decide what he wants to draw, the things surrounding the person are looked at, as if he saw them for the first time, to arrange them, configure them, and find their relationships with each other. [5]

Configure items

Formation is a way to arrange the elements to draw, so that they do not remain as they exist, but are organized together to form a beautiful scene. Among the formative principles that make the scene beautiful: [5]
  • Decentralized arrangement: by arranging the elements in a decentralized manner, and in a manner consistent with the central lines of the painting, which creates a balance in their arrangement. It is preferable to place the main element next to the center.
  • Central arrangement: placing the element at the center of the scene, with the aim of increasing focus on it.
  • Oblique arrangement: slanting (diagonal) axes of the scene are visualized and the elements are arranged accordingly, and this method adds a new and different touch to the panels.

drawing tools

The drawing tools used in the artwork vary, and vary according to the style of painting, or the style of the drawing to be made. Among the most important drawing tools used: [6]
  • Charcoal: These pens are made from black charcoal, so their blackness is more severe than pencils. One of its drawbacks is that it stains quickly.
  • Ink: used to draw thick or thin lines and to create frequent texture of the elements.
  • Pastel Colors: A way to create a painting full of life without using utilities like water or brushes. There are types of pastels, some of which are soft, hard of which are oily, some of which are oily, and some of them dissolve and mix in water.
  • Pencils: Pencils range from the lightest to the darkest, and from the hardest to the darkest.
  • Carbon pens: Similar to charcoal pens, they are more smooth.
  • Water colors .
  • Grease pens: used to paint on glass, plastic and even metals.
  • Paper: Depends on the type of color used.
  • Blending tool: used to work in the overlapping colors , and include the creation of the dark light, a tool in the form of sticks covered with sand.