Symptoms of glaucoma



Contents

  • 1 overview
  • 2 symptoms of glaucoma
    • 2.1 Primary glaucoma
      • 2.1.1 open-angle glaucoma
      • 2.1.2 Glaucoma is closed-angle
      • 2.1.3 glaucoma, natural tension
      • 2.1.4 Congenital glaucoma
    • 2.2 Secondary glaucoma
      • 2.2.1 Blood vessel glaucoma
      • 2.2.2 chromosome glaucoma
  • 3 cases that require a doctor's review
  • 4 tips to reduce blue water
  • 5 References

Overview

Glaucoma is medically referred to as glaucoma, glaucoma, or black water, and this condition expresses a group of eye disorders represented by optic nerve progressive damage, and this condition may result in loss of nerve tissue And the fact that the optic nerve represents a bundle of about one million nerve fibers, and transmits visual signals from the eye to the brain , it is worth noting that glaucoma often develops as a result of a significant increase in intraocular pressure that affects the optic nerve, and can also develop in people Who have z I have a natural eye as well, [1]With regard to cases of glaucoma caused by high intraocular pressure, it is worth noting that an increase in intraocular pressure occurs as a result of the inability to properly drain the aqueous humor in the eye, and thus accumulates inside the eye causing an increase in pressure in it, and in this context it is indicated that the aqueous humor It represents a transparent liquid that nourishes the eye , so that it flows inside and outside the eye through a network similar to the filaments of the network, and the fact that high eye pressure is the most common risk factor that promotes the development of glaucoma, and the risk factors for glaucoma also: exceeding forty years of age, and belonging to African origins American, exposure to a previous injury in the eye, and a family history of glaucoma, as well as the use of corticosteroid drugs (English: Corticosteroid). [2] [3]

Glaucoma usually affects both eyes, although one eye may be affected more than the other, [2] and there are several types of glaucoma, the most common of which is known as open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. ( 4) According to one of the studies published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology for the year 2014 AD, the incidence of global glaucoma is about 3.54%, as the incidence of open-angle glaucoma is about 3.05% and closed-angle glaucoma is about 0.50% at the level of the world, [5] It should be alert to the need for a Early diagnosis and follow the treatments prescribed by the doctor; as the therapeutic commitment to the plan protects the patient or at least reduce the likelihood of suffering from possible complications. [6] [2]

Symptoms of glaucoma

In fact, symptoms of glaucoma depend on the type and stage of the infection. [7] It is indicated that glaucoma is divided into two main types depending on the cause, primary and secondary, and symptoms can be described accordingly as follows: [8]

Primary glaucoma

In cases where the cause is unknown, it is called the term primary glaucoma, and primary glaucoma is the incidence of open-angle, closed-angle, or normal-tension glaucoma, or congenital symptoms, and symptoms of each of them can be indicated. As follows: [8]

Open angle glaucoma

The incidence of open-angle glaucoma is the blockage of the drainage channels in the eye over time, causing increased pressure inside the eye and thus damage to the optic nerve, but in this case the angle in the eye where the iris confluence with the cornea is wide and open as in the normal position, and it is worth The indication that there are no warning signs or symptoms warning of open-angle glaucoma in early stages, as this condition develops slowly and may not be accompanied by a marked loss of vision significantly for several years, [4]In the event that symptoms develop, it is the loss of the ability to peripheral vision gradually, so that affects both eyes in almost all cases, and in the advanced stages, the patient may suffer from tunnel vision, and is intended to lose the ability to see from the sides of the eyes Limbs, limiting vision to the central part, and thus the patient appears as if looking from a tunnel. [9] [10]

Glaucoma is closed-angle

Closed-angle glaucoma is the most common form of glaucoma in some Asian populations, and this condition may occur suddenly, or it may develop slowly over time, and differs from open-angle glaucoma because the drainage area where the iris meets the cornea is narrow, and this causes accumulation Fluid in the eye and increased intraocular pressure, [11] [12] Symptoms of closed-angle glaucoma can be shown depending on the type, whether acute or chronic, as follows: [13]
  • Chronic type: As this type of glaucoma develops very slowly, it may lead to damage to the optic nerve without developing any symptoms.
  • Acute type: It represents a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. The most prominent signs and symptoms associated with this condition can be described as follows:
    • Severe eye pain.
    • Nausea and vomiting.
    • Suddenly visual disturbances, and this often appears when the lighting is dim.
    • Eyes closed
    • See halos around the lights.
    • Red eyes .

Glaucoma is normal tension

Eye pressure is within the normal range for it in cases of glaucoma, despite the appearance of some signs of glaucoma, such as the appearance of spots in the field of vision and damage to the optic nerves. [14]

Congenital glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma is a rare form of glaucoma, as a child is born with this condition or may develop in the infant after birth, and congenital glaucoma is due to the abnormal development of drainage channels in the child's eye, resulting in the emergence of a set of symptoms that It can be observed immediately, represented by the blurring of the eye, the expansion of the size of the eye to appear larger than normal, and the increase in the secretion of tears in them, in addition to the inability to tolerate light. [12] [8]

Secondary glaucoma

The conditions in which glaucoma is linked to injury to another health problem is called secondary glaucoma, as the cause of high eye pressure in it is known, causing damage to the optic nerve , it may be due to an eye injury, infection, or the use of certain types of medication Like steroids, this type of glaucoma may also develop in advanced cases of cataracts or diabetes. It is worth noting that there are several types of secondary glaucoma, namely: vascular glaucoma (Neovascular), and chromosome glaucoma (English). Inge Lise: Pigmentary), and glaucoma desquamation ( in English: Exfoliation), the latter type is known glaucoma associated with inflammation of uveitis ( in English: Uveitis), [15] [8]In fact, symptoms of secondary glaucoma depend on the type, and a few examples are provided. [16]

Vascular glaucoma

The incidence of vascular glaucoma is due to the development of new blood vessels on the iris and drainage channels in the eye abnormally, as these new blood vessels reduce the exit of eye fluid through the drainage channels, causing increased pressure inside the eye, and it is indicated that this condition does not occur from On its own, the occurrence of this type of glaucoma is often linked to the occurrence of another disorder; this is often caused by diabetes , [15] and the symptoms of this type of glaucoma are suffering from eye pain or redness, or loss of vision. [8]

Chromosome glaucoma

This type of glaucoma often develops during the early or middle adulthood, and this condition is caused by the accumulation of pigment cells - which originate from the iris and spread inside the eye - in the channels that drain fluid from the eye, which disrupts the natural flow of fluid in the eye. Causing high intraocular pressure, [10] the symptoms of chromosomal glaucoma are suffering from blurring of the eyes, or seeing rainbow-colored rings around the lights, especially when exercising. [8]

Cases requiring a doctor's review

It is appropriate for a person to see a doctor or an eye specialist if there are any concerns about vision, and as noted earlier, early diagnosis and treatment in glaucoma cases helps in maintaining eye integrity and reducing vision loss, and on the other hand it is worth noting that leaving this condition without treatment It may cause visual impairment and possibly loss of vision , [17] and it is immediately appropriate for the person to go to the emergency or ophthalmologist in case of symptoms of glaucoma previously described. [7]

Tips for reducing blue water

In fact, it is not possible to prevent glaucoma, but self-care can help detect this condition in its early stages, as this contributes to slowing the progression of the condition and preventing damage to the eye, including loss of vision, and can highlight the most important guidelines that It can be followed to achieve this as follows: [11] [7]
  • Undergoing eye exams frequently, as regular comprehensive eye exams help detect glaucoma in its early stages, and therefore treatments can be followed in the early stages to prevent significant damage, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends a comprehensive eye examination every 5-10 years For those under forty years of age, while it is recommended every two to four years for those aged between 40-54 years, and every year for three years for those between the ages of 55-64 years, and every year for two years for those over 65 years of age, either If a person is at risk of developing glaucoma or sucking If a father has certain diseases, such as diabetes, he must be examined more often.
  • Familiarity with the family history related to eye health, as glaucoma infection may be hereditary in some families, which requires frequent examination, and in the context of this it is indicated the importance of undergoing a comprehensive eye examination under the supervision of an ophthalmologist every year to two years of age and who has a factor Family history of glaucoma.
  • Practicing moderate exercise safely and regularly, as this contributes to reducing the incidence of glaucoma by reducing intraocular pressure, and in this context it is advised to seek the advice of a doctor regarding the exercise program appropriate for the person, and in general, walking or running at an average of at least three times a week contributes to reducing eye pressure.
  • Regular use of eye drops, as the use of appropriate drops greatly reduces the risk of developing high eye pressure to glaucoma, but it is not possible to use any of the drops without consulting the doctor, and in this context it is indicated that the doctor may prescribe the drops in several cases even if The patient did not complain of any symptoms.
  • Wearing protective eye glasses, in order to protect them from the risk of injury, and this is recommended when practicing some sports or performing certain actions.