What is the source of diamond metal


  • 1 diamond metal
  • 2 sources of diamond metal
    • 2.1 Deep volcanic eruptions
    • 2.2 ocean sediments
    • 2.3 Asteroid collisions
    • 2.4 Meteorites
  • 3 countries that produce diamonds
  • 4 Quality of Diamond Stone
  • 5 other uses of diamonds
  • 6 References

Diamond metal

Diamonds are known to be a rare mineral, consisting of carbon , where the carbon atom is surrounded by four other carbon atoms connected by strong covalent bonds. And high dispersion, and high luster, these unique characteristics made this mineral one of the most popular gemstones in the world, and in this article we talk about extending this mineral and its source. [1]

Sources of diamond metal

Many people believe that the source of diamonds is charcoal , but this information is wrong. There is no role for charcoal in shaping diamonds, as most of the diamonds that have been dated are older than the first wild plants on the surface of the earth that are considered a source of coal, and the real sources of natural diamonds are four. They can be summarized as follows: [2]

Deep volcanic eruptions

Geologists believe that diamonds are formed in the mantle layer under very high temperatures and pressure, and are transported to the surface of the earth by deep volcanic eruptions, leaving behind tubes called Kimberlite and Lambrite tubes, which diamond prospectors search for, and in these explosions magma magma moves quickly from the depth of the mantle layer through The diamond stability zone, where diamonds and pieces of stone are drawn very quickly to the surface, are called xenoliths and may be loaded with diamonds. [2]

Ocean sediments

Small diamonds were found in the rocks that were raised to the mantle layer and formed what is called the range of subtraction due to the tectonic plate movements , where one of the converging plates slides from each other compelled to the mantle layer, and because they drop down, you will be exposed to an increase in pressure and temperature, as this type of rock Very rare and, if found, not suitable for commercial use. [2]

Asteroids collision

Diamonds are found in and around the craters and craters that result from asteroids colliding with the Earth’s surface, producing enormous force, pressure, and very high temperatures when colliding. These conditions are sufficient to shape the diamonds, especially if the target rocks contain carbon, for example, diamonds have been found in The Popigai Crater in northern Siberia, Russia, as well as small diamonds are found in Mitter Crater in Arizona . [2]


NASA researchers have found large numbers of Nanodiamonds in some meteorites, so that 3 percent of the carbon in these meteorites is converted to these diamonds, and it is believed that these diamonds may have formed in space during high-speed collisions and other powerful events, These diamonds are very small and are used as gemstones or industrial abrasives. For example, Smithsonian researchers found large numbers of small diamonds when they cut off a sample from the Allen Hills meteorite. [2]

Countries that produce diamonds

There are seven countries that have led the world to produce diamonds for more than a decade over time. They produce approximately one million carats annually, and they are depending on the amount of production: Russia, Botswana, Canada, Angola, South Africa , the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, and there Another group of countries produces less than a million carats annually and has less control over the market than the previous group, and they are depending on the amount of production: Australia, Ghana, Guinea, Guyana, Lesotho, Sierra Leone, Togo and Zimbabwe. [3]

Quality stone diamond

The Gemological Institute of America has developed a standardized method for assessing the quality of a diamond stone, the method has been known as The 4Cs of Diamond Quality, and the 4Cs are due to the following factors: color, cut, and clarity, Carat Weight, where the quality and quality of a diamond stone is determined by these four factors as follows: [1]
  • Color: High-quality diamonds range in color from yellow to colorless, but colorless diamonds are more valuable and are the most expensive, and there is a category of diamonds that are slowly becoming more and more popular and are colored stones in colors such as red, pink, yellow, purple, blue, and green. , Brown, and value of these stones are determined based on the intensity, purity, and quality of the color.
  • Clarity: The ideal diamond is free from fractures, impurities and foreign particles within it. This reduces the appearance of the stone, in addition to interfering with the crossing of light through the stone, and when it is present in large quantities, dark colors, and clear places or sizes, it will reduce the quality of the stone and reduce its value in addition to To reduce the strength of the stone itself.
  • Cut: What determines the appearance of a diamond is the craftsmanship used to cut diamonds in addition to the quality of the design, just as the cutting angles, design proportions and quality of polishing determine its appearance, brilliance, luminescence and emission of light from it. The edges of each face are exactly the same as the edges of the adjacent faces.
  • Carats: Diamonds are usually sold in carats, which equals 1/5 grams or 1/142 ounces, and the smaller the size of a diamond, the less carat weight is because small stones are present in abundance, while large stones are very rare.

Other uses of diamonds

Diamonds are not only used for jewelry and jewelry, but for other uses, we will learn about them as follows: [1]It is used as an abrasive, due to the extreme hardness of diamonds.
  • The manufacture of domes of high-quality amplifiers, and help to enhance their performance due to the hardness of diamonds, as the diamond improves the process of vibration.
  • Windows made from thin diamond films, which are used to cover the openings of laser devices, X-ray devices, and vacuum chambers. These windows are transparent, durable and resistant to heat and corrosion.
  • The manufacture of heat sinks, which are materials that absorb or transfer excess heat, the diamond has a very high thermal conductivity of any material, and it is also used to distribute heat away from high-performance micro-electronics parts that are sensitive to heat.
  • Manufacture of bearings or very small rollers, used in small mechanical devices, diamonds are highly corrosion resistant and long lasting.
  • Manufacture of wear-resistant parts, by coating the surfaces with a very thin layer of diamond, which is converted into vapor adhering to the surface to be protected from wear.